Wicked Wizard Eliquid E cigarettes: Expert Q&A With the CDC
Since their introduction to the market in 2004, global usage of electronic cigarettes has risen exponentially. As of 2013, there are several million users globally. Awareness and use of electronic cigarettes greatly increased over the past few years to 2014, particularly among young people and women in some countries, such as the U.S. As of 2014, it is predicted vaping will exceed smoking in about three decades.
Most users have had a history of smoking regular cigarettes. At least 52% of current or former smokers have used electronic cigarettes. Of the smokers who use it, less than 15% turn into everyday electronic cigarette users. Electronic cigarette use in never-smokers is very low but is rising. 10-11-year-olds never-smokers are more likely to use electronic cigarettes if a parent have used it.
Why people choose E cigarette?
There are varied reasons for e cigarette use. Most users’ motivation are related to quitting, but a fair proportion of use are recreational. Some users vape for relaxation. Many users vape because they believe it is healthier than smoking for themselves or bystanders although some are concerned about the possible adverse health effects. Users sometimes use e cigarettes without nicotine around friends for the convenience. Non-smoking adults usually try e cigarettes either due to curiosity, a relative was using them, or they were given an e cigarette. College students often vape for the sake of trying new things. Millions of dollars spent on marketing aimed at smokers suggests that e cigarettes are newer, healthier, cheaper and easier to use in smoke-free situations, all the more reasons that e cigarette users claim motivating their use. Exposure to e cigarette advertising also influences a great deal of people to try them.
Various types of electronic cigarettes.
2014 Centers for Disease Control (CDC) press release concerning e cigarettes.
As of 2014 electronic cigarettes has not yet been approved as a smoking cessation device by any government. In July 2014, a report produced by the World Health Organization (WHO, found there was not enough evidence to determine if electronic cigarettes could help people quit smoking.
The UK National Health Service stated that e cigarettes have approximately 5% of the risk of tobacco cigarettes while also concluded that their safety won’t be fully known for many years. There are clinical trials in progress to test the quality, safety and effectiveness of e cigarettes, but until these are complete, the NHS maintains that the government can’t give any advice on them or to recommend their use.
The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) also said “E cigarettes have not been fully studied, so consumers currently don’t know: the potential risks of e cigarettes when used as intended, how much nicotine or other potentially harmful chemicals are being inhaled during use, or whether there are any benefits associated with using these products. Additionally, it is not known whether e cigarettes may lead young people to try other tobacco products, including conventional cigarettes, which are known to cause disease and lead to premature death.”
Smoking cessation plan, success or fail?
As of 2014, research on the safety and efficacy of e cigarette use for smoking cessation is limited. The benefit of e cigarettes for quitting smoking is uncertain and unproven. They may have benefits for decreasing cigarette use in smokers, but limited benefits in quitting smoking.
A 2015 review found that vaping was not associated with successful quitting, but there are reports of quitting smoking or reduction. Since smoking reduction may just be a case of dual use, smoking reduction may not be a positive public health result. And the more worsening situation is e cigarettes could have a broad adverse effect by expanding initiation and lowering cessation of smoking.
In an effort to reduce the harm, but…
Tobacco harm reduction has been a controversial area of tobacco control. The core concern is that smokers who could have quit smoking entirely, will alternatively develop an addiction to another harmful device.
As of 2014, promotion of vaping as a harm reduction aid is premature. However, in an effort to decrease tobacco related death and disease, e cigarettes have a potential to be part of the harm reduction strategy.
Public Health England report concluded that e cigarettes “release negligible levels of nicotine into ambient air with no identified health risks to bystanders”. This fact is even better if the user manages to quit using these e cigarettes. However, they are still harmful because nicotine has long-term adverse effects, may contain impurities, and nicotine is addictive, which may have serious side effects, particularly with unconventional ways to increase the doses of nicotine exposure.
In an effort to reduce harm of cigarettes smoke, e cigarettes may actually cause other risks. E- cigarettes with higher voltage batteries can produce carcinogens including formaldehyde at levels found in cigarette smoke, A review found vaping e cigarettes at a high voltage (5.0V) may generate formaldehyde-forming chemicals at a greater level than smoking, which has been determined to be a lifetime cancer risk of about 5 to 15 times greater than smoking.
In an interview, the director of the Office on Smoking and Health for the U.S. federal agency Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) believes that there is enough evidence to say that using e cigarettes is likely less harmful than smoking a pack of conventional cigarettes. However, due to the lack of regulation of the contents of e cigarettes and the presence of nicotine, the CDC has issued warnings.
A WHO report concluded that some smokers will switch completely to e cigarettes from traditional tobacco but a “sizeable” number will use both. This report found that such “dual use” of e cigarettes and tobacco will have much smaller beneficial effects on overall survival compared with quitting smoking completely.
Is it true : vaping is safer than smoking?
The safety of e cigarettes is unclear, but the evidence suggests they cause less harmful effects than tobacco. There are data about their health effects, and considerable variability between vaporizers and in the quality of their liquids.
A few metal parts in e cigarettes can be in contact with the e liquid and contaminate it with metals. Many chemicals including carbonyl compounds such as formaldehyde can inadvertently be produced when the nichrome wire that touches the e liquid is heated and chemically reacts with the liquid.
E cigarettes create vapor that consists of ultrafine particles, with the majority of particles in the ultrafine range. The vapor has been found to contain flavors, propylene glycol, glycerin, nicotine, tiny amounts of toxicants, carcinogens, heavy metals, metal nanoparticles, and other chemicals. Exactly what comprises the vapor varies in composition and concentration across and within manufacturers. Due to various methodological issues, severe conflicts of interest, and inconsistent research, no definite conclusions can be determined regarding the safety of e cigarettes.
However, e cigarettes cannot be regarded as simply harmless. Aside from toxicity, there are also risks from misuse or accidents such as accidental contact with liquid nicotine, accidental fires caused by vaporizer malfunction, and explosions resulting from extended charging, use of unsuitable chargers, or vaporizer design flaws. There is a small risk of battery explosion in devices modified to increase battery power. Battery explosions are caused by an increase in internal battery temperature and some have resulted in severe skin burns.
E cigarette use by a parent might lead to inadvertent health risks to offspring.
The long-term effects of e cigarette use are still unknown. A 2014 Cochrane review found no serious adverse effects reported in trials. Less serious adverse effects from e cigarette use include throat and mouth inflammation, vomiting, nausea, and cough. The risk is probably low from the inhalation of propylene glycol and glycerin.
E cigarette users are exposed to potentially harmful nicotine. Nicotine is very addictive, comparable to heroin or cocaine. Nicotine induces strong effects on the brain, which lead to considerable changes in the brain’s physiology such as stimulation in regions of the cortex associated with reward, pleasure and reducing anxiety. When nicotine intake stops, there are withdrawal symptoms. Nicotine is associated with cardiovascular disease, potential birth defects, and poisoning.
In vitro studies of nicotine have associated it with cancer, but carcinogenicity has not been demonstrated in vivo. There is inadequate research to demonstrate that nicotine is associated with cancer in humans.
Vaping cause addiction?
Various organizations including the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, the American Academy of Pediatrics and the Food and Drug Administration are concerned that vaping might increase nicotine addiction and use among young people.
It is not clear whether vaping will decrease or increase overall nicotine addiction. Information about the drug action of the nicotine in e cigarettes is limited, but the nicotine in e cigarettes is adequate to sustain nicotine dependence.
A systematic review found that the concerns that e cigarettes could cause non-smokers to start smoking are unsubstantiated. No long-term studies have been done on the effectiveness of e cigarettes in treating tobacco addiction. Some evidence suggests that dual use of e cigarettes and traditional cigarettes may be associated with greater nicotine dependence.
A 2014 review has found that in studies up to a third of young people who have ever vaped have never smoked tobacco. The degree to which teens are using e cigarettes in ways the manufacturers did not intend, such as increasing the nicotine delivery, is unknown. The extent to which e cigarette use will lead to addiction or substance dependence in youth is unknown. Youthful experimentation with e cigarettes could lead to a lifelong addiction.
Society & Culture
Consumers of e cigarettes, sometimes called “vapers”, have shown passionate support for the device that other nicotine replacement therapy did not receive. This suggests e cigarettes have potential mass appeal that could challenge combustible tobacco’s market position.
As the electronic cigarette industry grows, a subculture has emerged which calls itself “the vaping community”. The online forum e cig-reviews.com was one of the first major communities. Another online forum known as ukvaper.org was the origin of the hobby of modding. There are also groups on Facebook and Reddit. Members of this emerging subculture often see e cigarettes as a safer alternative to smoking and some view it as a hobby.
Vapers energetically embrace activities associated with e cigarettes and sometimes act as unpaid evangelicals.
A 2014 review stated that tobacco and e cigarette companies interact with consumers for their policy agenda. The companies use websites, social media, and marketing to get consumers involved in opposing bills that include e cigarettes in smoke-free laws.
Large gatherings of vapers, called vape meets, take place around the US. They focus on e cig devices, accessories, and the lifestyle that accompanies them. Vapefest, which started in 2010, is an annual show hosted by different cities. People attending these meetings are usually enthusiasts that use specialized, community-made products not found in convenience stores or gas stations. These products are mostly available online or in dedicated “vape” storefronts where mainstream e cigarettes brands from the tobacco industry and larger e cig manufacturers are not as popular.
Some vape shops have a vape bar where patrons can test out different e liquids and socialize. Vape shop owners generally believe vaping is a habit.
As of 2014 the number of e cigarettes sold has increased every year. As of 2014 there were at least 466 e cigarette companies. Worldwide e cigarette sales in 2014 were around US$7 billion. US e cigarette sales were forecasted to increase to about 5 million units in 2012 compared to 50,000 in 2008. The big Tobacco has a significant share of the e cigarette market, and they are the major producers.