Wicked Wizard Eliquid Electronic Cigarettes: A Primer for Clinicians
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It has been suggested that this article be merged into Electronic cigarette aerosol. (Discuss) Proposed since November 2015.
Various bottles of e liquid.
E liquid is the mixture used in vapor products such as electronic cigarettes. The main ingredients in the e liquid usually are propylene glycol, glycerin, nicotine, and flavorings. However, there are e liquids sold without propylene glycol, nicotine, or flavors. The liquid typically contains 95% propylene glycol and glycerin. The flavorings may be natural or artificial. About 8,000 flavors exist as of 2014. There are many e liquids manufacturers in the USA and worldwide. While there are currently no US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) manufacturing standards for e liquid, the FDA has proposed regulations that are expected to be finalized in late 2015. Industry standards have been created and published by the American E liquid Manufacturing Standards Association (AEMSA).
E liquid, e-fluid, or e juice is the mixture used in vapor products including e cigarettes. E liquids come in many variations, including different nicotine strengths and many different flavors. The main ingredients are propylene glycol, glycerin, andflavorings; and most often, nicotine in liquid form. The liquid typically contains 95% propylene glycol and glycerin, and the remaining 5% being flavorings and nicotine. E liquid can be made with or without nicotine, with >90% of e liquids containing some level of nicotine. The most regularly used base carrier chemical is propylene glycol with or without glycerin. E liquid containing glycerin and water made without propylene glycol are also sold. It is uncertain whether the nicotine used in e liquid is manufactured using a United States Pharmacopeia (USP) grade nicotine, a tobacco plant or tobacco dust extract, or a synthetic nicotine. Most e cigarette liquids contain nicotine, but the level of nicotine varies depending on user-preference and manufacturers. Although some e juice is nicotine-free, surveys demonstrate that 97% of e cigarette users use products that contain nicotine. A 2015 review suggests that 1% of users use liquid without nicotine.
The e liquid is sold in bottles or pre-filled disposable cartridges, or as a kit for consumers to make their own e juices. Some vendors of e liquids, offer options to change the amounts of flavorings or nicotine strengths, and build each bottle customized for the purchaser. E liquids are made with various tobacco, fruit, and other flavors, as well as variable nicotine concentrations (including nicotine-free versions). The standard notation "mg/ml" is often used on labels to denote nicotine concentration, and is sometimes shortened to "mg". In surveys of regular e cigarette users, the most popular e liquids have a nicotine content of 18 mg/ml, and the preferred flavors were largely tobacco, mint and fruit. A cartridge may contain 0 to 20 mg of nicotine. EU regulations cap the concentration of nicotine in e liquid at a maximum of 20 mg/mL. A refill bottle can contain up to 1 g of nicotine. Refill liquids are often sold in the size range from 15 to 30 mL. One cartridge may typically last as long as one pack of cigarettes. Some liquids without flavoring is also sold. The flavorings may be natural or artificial. About 8,000 flavors exist as of 2014. A user does not normally consume a whole cartridge in a single session. Most e liquids are produced by a few manufacturers in China, the US and Europe. An e cigarette user will usually obtain 300 to 500 puffs per mL of liquid.
E liquids are manufactured by many producers, both in the US and across the world. First tier manufacturers use lab suits, gloves, hair covers, inside of certified clean rooms with air filtration similar to pharmaceutical-grade production areas.
Standards for e liquid manufacturing have been created by American E liquid Manufacturing Standards Association (AEMSA), which is trade association dedicated to creating responsible and sustainable standards for the safe manufacturing of e liquids used in vapor products. AEMSA has published a comprehensive list standards and best known methods, which are openly available for use by any manufacturer of e liquids. The AEMSA standards cover nicotine, ingredients, sanitary manufacturing rooms, safety packaging, age restrictions, and labeling.
There are no current governmental or US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) manufacturing standards for e liquid. The FDA has sought to regulate e liquid through use of the Tobacco Control Act, passed into law in 2009. In April of 2014, the FDA issued it's "Deeming" proposals for public comment, which would cover e liquids manufacturing. The Final Rule, (in final form) giving the FDA authority to regulate e liquids is anticipated to be released in late 2015, or early 2016.