Wicked Wizard Eliquid Electronic Cigarettes: A Short Review
In e cigarettes a liquid is heated to a temperature of about 55°C to create an aerosolized vapor. The vapor contains similar chemicals to the e liquid which vary in composition and concentration across and within manufacturers. The vapor usually contains nicotine, glycerin, propylene glycol, flavors and aroma transporters. E cigarettes without nicotine are also available. The vapor may also contain tiny amounts of toxicants, carcinogens, and heavy metals. Contamination with various chemicals has been identified. Some products contained trace amounts of the drugs tadalafil and rimonabant.
Some metal parts in e cigarettes contact the e liquid and may contaminate it with metals in concentrations far below levels permitted in inhaled medicines. Tin, cadmium, nickel, lead, aluminum, copper, silver, iron, mercury, and chromium have been found in the vapor. The nickel and chromium nanoparticles in the vapor may have came from the e cigarette heating element. The metals have been found in trace amounts in the vapor, although some of them at higher amounts than traditional cigarettes. Silicate particles have been found in the vapor.
Many chemicals including carbonyl compounds such as formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, and glyoxal can inadvertently be produced when the nichrome wire (heating element) that touches the e liquid is heated and chemically reacts with the liquid. The propylene glycol-containing liquids produced the most amounts of carbonyls in e cigarette aerosols.Propylene glycol could produce propylene oxide when heated and aerosolized. Glycerin may generate acrolein when heated at hotter temperatures. Some e cigarette products had acrolein identified in the vapor, at greatly reduced amounts than in cigarette smoke. Glyoxal and methylglyoxal have been found in the vapor. The amount of carbonyls vary greatly among different companies and within various samples of the same e cigarettes.
Tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs) such as NNK and N-Nitrosonornicotine and tobacco-specific impurities have been found in the vapor at very low levels, comparable to amounts found in nicotine replacement products. Trace amounts of toluene, xylene, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons,aldehydes, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), phenolic compounds, flavors, tobacco alkaloids, o-Methyl benzaldehyde, and cresol have been found in the vapor. Low levels of isoprene, acetic acid, 2-butanodione, acetone, propanol, and diacetin, and traces of apple oil (3-methylbutyl-3-methylbutanoate) have been found in the vapor.
Later-generation e cigarette devices can create greater amounts of carcinogens. E cigarettes devices using higher voltages can produce carcinogens including formaldehyde at levels found in cigarette smoke. High-voltage e cigarettes are capable of producing large amounts of carbonyls. Reduced voltage e cigarettes had e cigarette aerosol levels of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde roughly 13 and 807-fold less than indicated in cigarette smoke