Wicked Wizard E liquid Perceived efficacy of e cigarettes versus nicotine replacement therapy among successful e cigarette users: a qualitative approach
Electronic cigarette From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia An electronic cigarette (e cig or e cigarette), personal vaporizer (PV) or electronic nicotine delivery system (ENDS) is a battery-powered vaporizer which produces a similar feel to tobacco smoking.  Electronic cigarettes produce an aerosol, commonly called vapor, rather than cigarette smoke, which the user inhales. In general, e cigarettes have a heating element that atomizes a liquid solution known as e liquid. They are available as one-time use products or as reusable products. E liquids usually contain a mixture of propylene glycol, glycerin, nicotine, and flavorings.  E liquid containing glycerin and water made without propylene glycol is also available. Some e liquids lack nicotine. The benefits and health risks of electronic cigarettes are uncertain.  One review found limited evidence of a benefit as a smoking cessation aid. Another found no evidence that they are superior to regulated medications for quitting smoking. Their usefulness in tobacco harm reduction is unclear. One review approximated their safety risk to that of smokeless tobacco which has about 1% of the mortality risk of conventional cigarettes. Another found that products approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA), such as nicotine inhalers, are probably safer than e cigarettes. Limited evidence suggests e cigarettes are safer than traditional cigarettes.  Electronic cigarettes may carry a risk of addiction for those who do not already smoke. There is no evidence they are regularly used by those who have never smoked. E cigarette use may delay or deter quitting smoking. Their emissions may contain ultrafine particles, aroma transporters, propylene glycol, glycerin, nicotine, tiny amounts of carcinogens and heavy metals, and other chemicals. E cigarette vapor contains fewer toxic substances than cigarette smoke, and is likely to be less harmful than traditional cigarettes to users and bystanders.  No serious adverse effects from e cigarettes have been reported in trials. Less serious adverse effects include throat and mouth inflammation, vomiting, nausea, and cough. The long-term effects of e cigarette use are unknown. Use has risen, with up to 10% of American high school students having used them at least once as of 2012, and around 3.4% of American adults as of 2011. In the United Kingdom the number of users has increased from 700,000 in 2012 to 2.1 million in 2013. About 60% of UK users are smokers and most of the rest are ex-smokers. Most e cigarette users still smoke traditional cigarettes. Most peoples' reason for using e cigarettes is related to quitting, with a considerable Electronic cigarette - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 1 of 34 27/04/15 10:55 AM proportion using them recreationally. The modern e cigarette arose from a 2003 invention by Hon Lik in China and as of 2014 most devices are made there. E cigarette brands have increased their advertising, using marketing techniques like those used to sell cigarettes in the 1950s and 1960s. Because of the potential relationship with tobacco laws and medical drug policies, electronic cigarette legislation is being debated in many countries. The European Parliament passed regulations in February 2014 standardizing liquids and personal vaporizers, listing ingredients, and child-proofing liquid containers. The US FDA published proposed regulations in April 2014 with some similar measures. Contents 1 Use 1.1 Motivation for use 2 Construction 2.1 Device generations 2.2 Atomizer 2.3 Power 2.4 E liquid 3 Health effects 3.1 Position of medical organizations 3.2 Smoking cessation 3.3 Harm reduction 3.4 Safety 3.5 Addiction 4 History 5 Society and culture 5.1 Legal status 5.2 Economics 6 Related technologies 7 References 8 External links Use Electronic cigarette sales increased from 50,000 in 2008 to 3.5 million in 2012. Electronic cigarette sales worldwide for 2014 were estimated at $7 billion. Awareness and use of e cigarettes has greatly increased over the few years before 2014, particularly among young people and women in some countries. People with high-income are more likely to have herd of e cigarettes, but Electronic cigarette - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 2 of 34 27/04/15 10:55 AM Common reasons people use the e cigarette is a desire to quit smoking cigarettes, cut down on their smoking habit or for use where smoking is prohibited by law.  people with low-income are typically more inclined to have tried them. Trying e cigarettes was common with less educated people. Whites are more likely than non-whites to use them. Most users have a history of smoking normal cigarettes. Some young people who have never smoked normal cigarettes have tried electronic cigarettes at least once. The majority of e cigarette users use them every day. E cigarette users mostly keep smoking traditional cigarettes. Many users say e cigarettes help them cut down or quit smoking. Adults most often use e cigarettes to replace tobacco, but not always to quit. Most e cigarette users are middle-aged males who also smoke traditional cigarettes, either to help them quit or for recreational use. The percentage of the use of e cigarettes during pregnancy is unknown, but if companies persuade women that these devices present a minor risk females of reproductive age not smoking might start using e cigarettes and pregnant women currently smoking might shift to e cigarettes or use these devices to reduce smoking, instead of quitting tobacco altogether. Among females, e cigarette use is rising sharply. E cigarette use is rising among females of childbearing age. Although some people want to quit smoking using e cigarettes, other reasons for using them are to circumvent smoke-free laws and policies, and to cut back on the number of traditional cigarettes smoked. The extent to which traditional cigarette users use e cigarettes to avoid smoking bans is unclear. Dual use of e cigarettes and traditional tobacco is still a definite concern. Many worry that e cigarettes may function as a "gateway" to using traditional cigarettes. Ethical concerns exist about e cigarettes use among minors and their potential to weaken efforts to reduce the use of traditional cigarettes. In the United States, as of 2011, one in five adults who smoke have tried electronic cigarettes and 3.3% are currently using them. Among grade 6 to 12 students in the United States, those who have at least once used the product increased from 3.3% in 2011 to 6.8% in 2012 and those currently using electronic cigarettes increased from 0.6% to 1.1%. Over the same period the percentage of grade 6 to 12 students who regularly smoke tobacco cigarettes fell from 7.5% to 6.7%. The frequency of use has increased with up to 10% of American high school students having ever used them as of 2012. In 2013 the CDC found a threefold increase from 2011 in the number of youth who have used electronic cigarettes who have never smoked. Between 2013 and 2014, use of electronic cigarettes among American teenagers tripled. The limited data suggests that e cigarette use is rapidly growing among adolescents. The majority of youth who use e cigarettes also smoke combustible cigarettes. E cigarette use among never-smoking youth in the U.S. is correlated with an elevated desire to use traditional cigarettes. In the UK in 2014, 18% of regular smokers identified themselves as using electronic cigarettes and 51% stated that they had used them in the past. Among those who had never smoked, 1.1% said they had tried them and 0.2% continue to use them. In 2013, among those under 18, 7% have used e cigarettes at least once. Among non-smokers' children, 1% reported having tried e cigarettes "once or twice", and there was no evidence of continued use. Sustained use was mostly confined to children who smoke or have smoked. In 2014 child regular users was at 1.8%, Electronic cigarette - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 3 of 34 27/04/15 10:55 AM children who have ever used e cigarettes was at 10%, and occasional or greater use among neversmoking children was at 0.18%. About 60% are smokers and most of the rest are ex-smokers. A February 2014 survey in France estimated that between 7.7 and 9.2 million people have tried e cigarettes, with between 1.1 and 1.9 million using them on a daily basis. 67% of tobacco smokers in the survey used e cigarettes to reduce or quit tobacco smoking. 9% of those who tried e cigarettes had never smoked tobacco. Of the 1.2% that had recently stopped tobacco smoking at the time of the survey, 84% (or 1% of the population surveyed) credited e cigarettes for stopping tobacco use. Larger numbers of young people are starting to use e cigarettes. A high number of youths who use e cigarettes also smoking traditional cigarettes. Some youths who have tried an e cigarette have never smoked a traditional cigarette; this indicates that they can be a starting point for nicotine use for some youths. There are high levels of dual use with e cigarettes and traditional cigarettes. E cigarettes were not regularly associated with trying to quit tobacco among young people. Motivation for use There are varied reasons for e cigarette use. Studies suggest most users' motivation is related to quitting, but a considerable proportion of use is recreational. Reasons for trying e cigarettes are partly due to curiosity and experimentation rather than ongoing use. Some vapers use e cigarettes for the enjoyment. Many users assume that e cigarettes are healthier than traditional cigarettes for personal use or for other people. Some users are concerned about the possible adverse health effects or toxicity of e cigarettes. Traditional cigarette users who have not used e cigarettes had mixed ideas about their possible satisfaction and around one third thought that e cigarettes might taste bad. Vapers disagreed whether it was a benefit or a drawback regarding the way they feel or taste similar to traditional cigarettes. Some traditional cigarette users and e cigarette users liked that e cigarettes resembled traditional cigarettes, whereas others thought this was a drawback. E cigarettes users' views about saving money from using e cigarettes compared to traditional cigarettes are inconsistent. The majority of committed e cigarette users interviewed at an e cigarette convention found them less costly compared to traditional cigarettes.