Wicked Wizard Eliquid Position Statement on Electronic Cigarettes [ECs] or Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems [ENDS]
The International Union against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease. October 2013.
Position Statement on Electronic Cigarettes [ECs] or Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems [ENDS]
Position Statement on Electronic Cigarettes [ECs] / Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems (ENDS) Key Messages · The Union has issued this position statement based on a careful review of the scientific evidence; the position statement will be reviewed by mid-2015; · The safety of Electronic cigarettes (ECs) or electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) has not been scientifically demonstrated; · Adverse health effects for third parties exposed (second-hand exposure) cannot be excluded because the use of electronic cigarettes leads to emission of fine and ultrafine inhalable liquid particles, nicotine and cancer-causing substances into indoor air; · The benefits of e cigarettes have not been scientifically proven. To date, very few studies have assessed ECs/ENDS as a harm reduction and cessation aid and with conflicting findings; · The Union is concerned that the marketing, awareness and use of ECs or ENDS is growing rapidly; · A range of current and proposed legislative and regulatory options exists; some countries (such as Brazil, Norway, and Singapore) have banned ECs/ENDS completely; · ENDS could undermine the implementation of WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control [FCTC] Article 12 (denormalisation of tobacco use); use of ENDS could also hamper the implementation of Article 8 (protection from exposure to tobacco smoke) as ENDS users in public places may claim that their electronic cigarette does not contain tobacco and/or does not produce second-hand tobacco smoke; · The Union strongly supports the regulation of the manufacture, marketing and sale of Electronic cigarettes (ECs) or electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS); the preferred option is to regulate ECs or ENDS as medicines; · If regulation as medicines is not feasible, the following measures should be considered, pending the availability of reliable evidence: i. a comprehensive ban on all advertising, promotion and sponsorship; ii. promotion of ECs/ENDS for tobacco cessation to be prohibited; iii. display of ECs/ENDS in retail stores to be prohibited; iv. sale to minors (persons under the age of full legal responsibility) to be prohibited; v. ECs/ENDS and their refills should not be sold in flavours that are appealing to children; vi. packaging and labelling of EC/ENDS cartridges and disposable ECs/ENDS to include a list of all ingredients, stipulate the quantity of nicotine and include appropriate warning labels; vii. ECs/ENDS should not be used in public places, workplaces or on public transportation; viii. consumer safety standards for EC cartridges to be established, including ensuring manufacturing consistency and regulating the maximum quantity/dosage of nicotine they may contain. ©The Union 2013 3 Position Statement 1. Electronic cigarettes (ECs) or electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) may be defined as devices whose function is to vaporise and deliver to the lungs of the user a chemical mixture typically composed of nicotine, propylene glycol and other chemicals, although some products claim to contain no nicotine. Each device contains an electronic vaporisation system, rechargeable batteries, electronic controls and cartridges of the liquid that is vaporised. These products are not currently regulated or monitored so that the contents may vary between different e cigarettes and may not be known to the consumer. ENDS initially emerged in China in 2003 and have since become widely available globally, particularly over the Internet. 2. The safety of ECs or ENDS has not been scientifically demonstrated. The potential risks they pose for the health of users remain undetermined. Furthermore, scientific testing indicates that the products vary widely in the amount of nicotine and other chemicals they deliver and there is no way for consumers to find out what is actually delivered by the product they have purchased. As ENDS do not generate the smoke that is associated with the combustion of tobacco, their use is commonly believed by consumers to be safer than smoking tobacco. This illusive ‘safety’ of ENDS can be enticing to consumers; however, the chemicals used in electronic cigarettes have not been fully disclosed, and there are no adequate data on their emissions. Adverse health effects for third parties exposed (second-hand exposure) cannot be excluded because the use of electronic cigarettes leads to emission of fine and ultrafine inhalable liquid particles, nicotine and cancer-causing substances into indoor air. 3. Awareness and use of ECs or ENDS is growing rapidly. Population based estimates of awareness [among current and former smokers] for the year 2010 are in the range 32.2%-40.9% for the USA; for the year 2011 estimates for the USA are 57.9% - 73.4%, for the UK 54.4%, for Canada 39.5%, for Australia 20% and for Indonesia 10.9%. Use of ENDS amongst current and former tobacco users in 2010/11 was estimated at 6% for USA, 4% for the UK, and 1% for both Canada and Australia, and use of ENDS among Indonesian men is 0.5%. However a recent report by the UK Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency found that a tenth of UK smokers now use e cigarettes; the number of UK users has risen to around 1.3 million in 2013, up from 700,000 in the previous year. A recent study by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention showed that e cigarette experimentation and recent use doubled among U.S. middle and high school students during 2011–2012, resulting in an estimated 1.78 million students having ever used e cigarettes as of 2012. This is a serious concern because the overall impact of e cigarette use on public health remains uncertain. In youths, concerns include the potential negative impact of nicotine on adolescent brain development as well as the risk for nicotine addiction and initiation of the use of conventional cigarettes or other tobacco products. ©The Union 2013 4 4. The benefits of e cigarettes have not been scientifically proven. To date, few studies have assessed ECs/ENDS as a harm reduction or cessation aid and with conflicting findings. For example, one study, with positive findings, was based on a very small prospective study which monitored possible modifications in smoking habits of 40 regular smokers; another with equivocal findings was based on a sample of 5,939 current and former smokers across four countries. The all-important ‘bottom line’ from the ‘four-country’ study was that ENDS users were not more likely to quit smoking than non-users (further waves of research in this longitudinal study will yield important insights into this important question). More recently, a randomised controlled trial conducted in New Zealand found that e cigarettes, with or without nicotine, were modestly effective at helping smokers to quit, with similar achievement of abstinence as with nicotine patches, and few adverse events. 5. A range of proposals for legislative and regulatory approaches to ENDS currently exist. Electronic cigarettes and other electronic products containing nicotine are to be regulated as medicines in the United Kingdom from 2016, to ensure their quality and safety. The UK’s plans are aligned with forthcoming European legislation, so e cigarettes would not be required to obtain a medicines licence until the European Commission’s Tobacco Products Directive is agreed and becomes UK law in 2016. The UK’s decision contrasts with those of some countries that have introduced restrictions on the sale and use of e cigarettes and other countries that have banned them completely, such as Brazil, Norway, and Singapore. In the USA, e cigarettes that are marketed for therapeutic purposes are regulated by the United States Food and Drug Administration [FDA] Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER). The FDA Center for Tobacco Products (CTP) currently regulates cigarettes, cigarette tobacco, roll-your-own tobacco, and smokeless tobacco. FDA has stated its intent to issue a proposed rule that would extend FDA’s tobacco product authorities to products that meet the statutory definition of “tobacco product.” The Food and Drug Monitoring Agency in Indonesia has warned the Indonesian people that electronic cigarettes could be more dangerous than regular cigarettes. ECs are illegal in Indonesia. 6. ENDS could undermine the implementation of WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control [FCTC] Article 12 (denormalisation of tobacco use); use of ENDS could also hamper the implementation of Article 8 (protection from exposure to tobacco smoke) as ENDS users in public places may claim that their electronic cigarette does not contain tobacco and/or does not produce second-hand tobacco smoke. The WHO FCTC Secretariat has produced a report Electronic nicotine delivery systems, including electronic cigarettes [an extract of which is featured as Appendix 1 in the full technical version of this statement]. ©The Union 2013 5 7. The Union strongly supports the regulation of the manufacture, marketing and sale of electronic cigarettes (ECs) or electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS). The preferred option is to regulate ECs or ENDS as medicines. 8. If regulation as medicines is not feasible, the following measures should be considered, pending the availability of reliable evidence: i. a comprehensive ban on all advertising, promotion and sponsorship; ii. promotion of ECs/ENDS for tobacco cessation to be prohibited; iii. display of ECs/ENDS in retail stores to be prohibited; iv. sale to minors (persons under the age of full legal responsibility) to be prohibited; v. ECs/ENDS and their refills should not be sold in flavours that are appealing to children; vi. packaging and labelling of EC/ENDS cartridges and disposable ECs/ENDS to include a list of all ingredients, stipulate the quantity of nicotine and include appropriate warning labels; vii. ECs/ENDS should not be used in public places, workplaces or on public transportation; viii. consumer safety standards for EC cartridges to be established, including ensuring manufacturing consistency and regulating the maximum quantity/dosage of nicotine they may contain. ©The Union 2013 6 TABLE OF CONTENTS Position Statement on Electronic Cigarettes [ECs] / Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems (ENDS) ...2 Key Messages......................................................................................................................................2 Position Statement .............................................................................................................................3 Definition ....................................................................................................................................7 Consumer safety.......................................................................................................................... 7 Prevalence estimates of EC/ENDS awareness and use ...................................................................8 Evidence about EC/ENDS and harm reduction............................................................................. 11 WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control [FCTC]............................................................ 12 Legislative and regulatory responses.......................................................................................... 12 Structured evidence review........................................................................................................ 13 Search strategy .................................................................................................................................13 Classification of retrieved studies.....................................................................................................13 Analysis of position statements from selected health agencies.................................................... 16 Appendix 1 ECs/ENDS and the WHO FCTC in detail.................................................................. 18 Appendix 2 Tabulation of selected studies.............................................................................. 20 References................................................................................................................................. 25 ©The Union 2013 7 Definition Electronic cigarettes (ECs) or electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) are devices whose function is to vaporise and deliver to the lungs of the user a chemical mixture typically composed of nicotine, propylene glycol and other chemicals, although some products claim to contain no nicotine. A number of ENDS are offered in flavours that can be particularly attractive to adolescents. Electronic cigarettes (e cigs) are the most common prototype of ENDS. Each device contains an electronic vaporisation system, rechargeable batteries, electronic controls and cartridges of the liquid that is vaporised. The manufacturers report that the cartridges typically contain between 6 and 24 mg of nicotine, but sometimes can contain more than 100 mg. In the form of tobacco products, nicotine is an addictive chemical that in excessive amounts can be lethal (0.5-1.0 mg per kg of weight of the person). Most ENDS are shaped to look like their conventional (tobacco) counterparts (e.g. cigarettes, cigars, cigarillos, pipes, hookahs or shishas). They are also sometimes made to look like everyday items such as pens and USB memory sticks, for people who wish to use the product without other people noticing.1 Where included, the levels of the nicotine can vary drastically and cartridges can also contain candy-like flavourings. These products are not currently regulated or monitored so that the contents may vary between different e cigarettes and may not be known to the consumer.2 ENDS initially emerged in China in 2003 and have since become widely available globally, particularly over the Internet.3 Documents from the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library also show that the Philip Morris company was experimenting with ECs as early as the 1990s.4 Consumer safety The safety of ECs or ENDS has not been scientifically demonstrated. 1, 2, 5-8 The health impact from long-term inhalation of propylene glycol through the lung is of particular concern and has not been fully investigated. The potential risks they pose for the health of users remain undetermined. Furthermore, scientific testing indicates that the products vary widely in the amount of nicotine and other chemicals they deliver and there is no way for consumers to find out what is actually delivered by the product they have purchased.1, 9 Most ENDS contain large concentrations of propylene glycol, which is a known irritant when inhaled. The testing of some of these products also suggests the presence of other toxic chemicals, aside from nicotine. In addition, use of these products -when they contain nicotine- can pose a risk for nicotine poisoning (i.e. if a child of 30 Kilos of weight swallows the contents of a nicotine cartridge of 24 mg this could cause acute nicotine poisoning that most likely would cause his/her death) and a risk for addiction to non-smokers of tobacco products. Nicotine, inhaled, ingested or in direct contact with the skin, can be particularly hazardous to the health and safety of certain segments of the population, such as children, young people, pregnant women, nursing mothers, people with heart conditions and the elderly. ENDS and their nicotine cartridges and refill accessories must be kept out of the reach of young children at all times in view of the risk of choking or nicotine poisoning. Tests by FDA on some ECs showed the presence of diethylene glycol, a chemical that has a history of mass poisonings and deaths when inadvertently substituted for propylene glycol in consumer products. The additional presence of irritants, solvents, genotoxins, and animal carcinogens (e.g., butyl acetate, diethyl carbonate, benzoic acid, quinoline, dioctyl phthalate 2,6- dimethyl phenol) is of unclear significance but needs further consideration.10 As ENDS do not, according to WHO, generate the smoke that is associated with the combustion of tobacco, their use is commonly believed by consumers to be safer than smoking tobacco. This illusive ‘safety’ of ENDS can be enticing to consumers; however, the chemicals used in electronic cigarettes have not been fully disclosed, and there are no adequate data on their emissions.1 ©The Union 2013 8 Several laboratory type studies involving live human subjects, 11-14 or other models, 15-17 underline concerns about negative consequences for health. These concerns include the presence of metal and silicate particles in cartomizera aerosol which demonstrate the need for improved quality control in EC design and manufacture, 18 nicotinergic dose and impact, 11 lung function,12 the presence of chemicals such as glycerol and propylene glycol in the nicotine-containing liquid of cartridges, design flaws, lack of adequate labelling and quality control variation in contents and misleading information on product ingredients, 13, 16 the need to fully assess the possible cytotoxic prenatal effect of EC refill fluids,15 the decreasing amount of aerosol produced by e cigarettes during smoking, which necessitates increasing puff strength to produce aerosol and the potential adverse effects of this on human health. 14, 17 These design flaws, lack of adequate labelling and concerns about quality control and health issues have led some researchers to conclude the need for product regulation,14 and that regulators should consider removing ENDS from the market until their safety can be adequately evaluated. 16 ECs/ENDS are not emission-free; they contain volatile organic substances, including propylene glycol, flavours and nicotine, and are emitted as mist or aerosol into indoor air. The substances emitted by ECs/ENDS may be inhaled by non-users, especially when used indoors. Adverse health effects for third parties exposed cannot be excluded because the use of electronic cigarettes leads to emission of fine and ultrafine inhalable liquid particles, nicotine and cancer-causing substances into indoor air.19 Prevalence estimates of EC/ENDS awareness and use A recent review found that a 10th of UK smokers now use e cigarettes; the number of UK users has risen to around 1.3 million in 2013, up from 700,000 from the previous year. The vast majority of EC users were current or former smokers and many feared that they would return to smoking tobacco if the products were banned. There was little evidence of use of e cigarettes by children who weren’t already smokers.9 Several studies of prevalence have been conducted in the USA20-24 including a four-country survey which also examined prevalence in Canada, Australia and the United Kingdom.3 Popova and colleagues’ nationally representative probability-based cross-sectional survey of 1,836 current or recently former adult smokers was completed in November 2011. Of smokers, 38% had tried an alternative tobacco product, most frequently e cigarettes. Alternative tobacco product use was associated with having made a quit attempt, and those intending to quit were significantly more likely to have tried and to currently use the products than were smokers with no intentions to quit. Use was not associated with successful quit attempts. Interest in future use of alternative tobacco products was low, except for e cigarettes. The researchers concluded that these data did not indicate that alternative tobacco products promote cessation. 20 Regan and colleagues conducted a consumer-based mail-in survey which was completed by 10,587 adults (>/= 18 years) in 2009 and 10,328 adults in 2010. Data from these surveys were used to provide estimates of awareness, ever use and past month use of ENDS from 2009 to 2010 and to assess demographic characteristics and tobacco use of ENDS users. Awareness of ENDS doubled from 16.4% in 2009 to 32.2% in 2010; ‘ever use’ more than quadrupled from 0.6% in 2009 to 2.7% in 2010. ‘Ever use’ of ENDS was most common among women and those with lower education, although these were not the groups who had heard of ENDS most often. Current smokers and tobacco users were most likely to try ENDS. Current smokers who had tried ENDS did not say they planned to quit smoking more often than smokers who had never tried them.21 a A cartomizer is a device consisting of an atomizer and cartridge all in one piece that connects to the battery. ©The Union 2013 9 King and colleagues conducted national consumer-based surveys of U.S. adults aged >/=18 years old. In 2010, data collection was both mail-based (n = 4,184) and web-based (n = 2,505); in 2011, it was web-based (n = 4,050) only. Estimates of awareness and ever-use of e cigarettes were calculated overall and by sex, age, race/ethnicity, educational attainment, household income, region, and smoking status. In 2010, overall awareness of e cigarettes was 38.5% (mail survey) and 40.9% (web survey); in 2011, awareness was 57.9% (web survey). Ever-use of e cigarettes among all respondents was 2.1% in the 2010 mail survey, 3.3% in the 2010 web survey, and 6.2% in the 2011 web survey. Ever-use of e cigarettes was significantly higher among current smokers compared with both former and never-smokers, irrespective of survey method or year. During 2010-2011, ever-use increased among both sexes, those aged 45-54 years, non-Hispanic Whites, those living in the South, and current and former smokers. The researchers concluded that awareness and ever-use of e cigarettes increased among U.S. adults from 2010 to 2011. In 2011, approximately 1 in 5 current smokers reported having ever-used e cigarettes.22 Pearson and colleagues have reported data from two surveys conducted in 2010: a national online study (n = 2649) and the Legacy Longitudinal Smoker Cohort (n = 3,658). Multivariate models were used to examine EC awareness, use, and harm perceptions. In the online survey, 40.2% [95% CI: 37.3, 43.1] had heard of ECs, with awareness highest among current smokers. Utilisation was higher among current smokers, estimated at 11.4% [95% CI: 9.3, 14.0], than in the total population - 3.4% [95% CI: 2.6, 4.2]. The researchers found that 2.0% of former smokers [95% CI: 1.0, 3.8] and 0.8% of never-smokers [95% CI: 0.35, 1.7] reported ever using ECs. In both surveys, non-Hispanic Whites, current smokers, young adults, and those with at least a high-school diploma were most likely to perceive ECs as less harmful than regular cigarettes.23 McMillen and colleagues have reported what they describe as the ‘first nationally representative estimates for use of four emerging products’ (snus, waterpipe; dissolvable tobacco products; and ENDS). A mixed-mode survey was used to obtain two representative samples of US adults. Of 3,240 eligible respondents contacted, 74% completed surveys. In the weighted analysis, 13.6% of respondents had tried at least one emerging tobacco product: snus 5.1%; waterpipe 8.8%; dissolvable tobacco products 0.6%; and ENDS 1.8%. Daily smokers (25.1%) and nondaily smokers (34.9%) were the most likely to have tried at least one of these products, compared to former smokers (17.2%) and never smokers (7.7%, P24 have tried one of these products (P/=20 cigarettes per day) smokers. In all, 79.8% reported using ENDS because they were considered less harmful than traditional cigarettes; 75.4% stated that they used ENDS to help them reduce their smoking; and 85.1% reported using ENDS to help them quit smoking. The researchers concluded that because the trial was associated with nondaily smoking and a desire to quit smoking, ENDS may have the potential to serve as a cessation aid.3 It is noteworthy that in an effort to evaluate claims of reduction in cigarette use, change in the number of cigarettes per day was assessed between Wave 7 and Wave 8 (of this cohort study). Quitting did not differ between users and non-users: c 2 (2, n=4,136) = 0.422 (p=0.516); this is a note emphasised by the reviewer and not by the researchers, although it was included in their paper and key findings. This aspect of the findings has also been noted by Chapman.26 Table 1 Prevalence of ENDS awareness, trial, and use among current and former tobacco users, % yes (SE) [Source: Adkison et al, 2013] The Global Adults Tobacco Survey 2011 for Indonesia shows that overall, 10.9% adults have heard about electronic cigarettes, but only 0.3% use them (in males 0.5%). More men than women had heard about electronic cigarettes (16.8% and 5.1%, respectively), as well as those in the 15–24 and 25–44 years age group (14.4% and 12.4%, respectively), those living in urban areas (15.3%), people with higher levels of education (secondary 11.5%, high school 20.3%, and college and university29.4%), those who are employed (16.3%) and students (19.1%).27 By the end of 2012, according to estimates by Euromonitor International estimates, the EC/ENDS market was worth in excess of $US 2 billion globally (about the size of the global small cigars market).b b cigarettes-a-us2-billion-global-industry-who-should-be-worried.html#sthash.w1Xx0i0X.dpuf ©The Union 2013 11 Evidence about EC/ENDS and harm reduction To date, few studies of acceptable quality have assessed ENDS as a harm reduction and cessation aid. Bullen and colleagues reported in September 2013 on the findings from a randomised controlled trial conducted in New Zealand. 657 people were randomised (289 to nicotine e cigarettes, 295 to nicotine patches, and 73 to placebo e cigarettes) and were included in the intention-to-treat analysis. At 6 months, verified abstinence was 7.3% (21 of 289) with nicotine e cigarettes, 5.8% (17 of 295) with patches, and 4.1% (three of 73) with placebo e cigarettes (risk difference for nicotine e cigarette vs. patches 1.51 [95% CI –2.49 to 5.51]; for nicotine e cigarettes vs. placebo e cigarettes 3.16 [95% CI –2.29 to 8.61]). Achievement of abstinence was substantially lower than the researchers anticipated for the power calculations, thus they had insufficient statistical power to conclude superiority of nicotine e cigarettes to patches or to placebo e cigarettes. No significant differences in adverse events were identified.28 Adkison and colleagues have reported data from wave 8 of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four-Country Survey, conducted July 2010 to June 2011 in the U.S., UK, Canada and Australia, via telephone interviews and web surveys. Data were collected for 5,939 respondents across the four countries: U.S. (n=1,520); UK (n=1,325); Canada (n=1,581); Australia (n=1,513). Nearly three quarters (70.4%) of this sample reported that they used ENDS as a way to obtain nicotine in smokefree spaces, indicating that ENDS were being used also to satisfy nicotine addiction during periods of temporary abstinence. Current ENDS use was associated with a greater reduction in cigarettes per day over time, compared to non-ENDS users (among cohort participants, where data were available). But, the all-important ‘bottom line’ was that ENDS users were not more likely to quit smoking than non-users. With the addition of future International Tobacco Control survey waves, it will be possible to track whether those self-selecting to use ENDS compared to those not using ENDS are more or less successful with their efforts to abstain from smoking. Limitations of the study include sampling of only current and former cigarette smokers (understanding the awareness, trial, and use of ENDS among non-smokers, in particular adolescents, is of great importance to understanding their potential impact on public health).3 Caponnetto and colleagues reported in 2013 on a study designed to evaluate smoking reduction/abstinence in 300 smokers ‘not intending to quit’, experimenting with two different nicotine strengths of a popular e cigarette model ('Categoria'; Arbi Group Srl, Italy) compared to its non-nicotine choice. The authors concluded that ‘in smokers not intending to quit’ (author’s emphasis), the use of e cigarettes, with or without nicotine, decreased cigarette consumption and elicited enduring tobacco abstinence without causing significant side effects.29 Polosa and colleagues reported in 2013 on a small (n=40) prospective observational study which evaluated smoking reduction/abstinence in smokers not intending to quit using an e cigarette (also the Catgeoria brand – and very similar research team membership to Caponnetto et al (2013). Of the 40 subjects, 17 were lost to follow-up at 24 months. Despite this 42% drop-out rate, the researchers felt able to conclude that long-term e cigarette use can substantially decrease cigarette consumption in smokers not willing to quit and is well tolerated.30 In an earlier report of this same study, Polosa and colleagues reported in 2011 that the use of EC substantially decreased cigarette consumption without causing significant side effects in smokers not intending to quit; they also acknowledge that this is a small and uncontrolled study, hence the results observed may be due to a chance finding and not to a true effect.31 In 2010, Eissenberg reported on his laboratory study which examined how two brands of electronic nicotine delivery devices (e cigarettes) influence plasma nicotine levels, heart rate and cigarette craving in cigarette smokers, and compared these effects to those produced by smokers’ usual brand of cigarettes (own brand). Relative to a tobacco cigarette, 10 puffs from either of the electronic ©The Union 2013 12 nicotine delivery devices (e cigarettes) with a 16 mg nicotine cartridge delivered little to no nicotine and suppressed craving less effectively. Importantly, these results were from two specific products tested under acute conditions in which puff number was controlled. The author concluded that at the least, consumers should be aware that unlike several regulated nicotine products (e.g., gum, patch), these putative drug delivery systems do not delivery nicotine effectively after acute administration.14 WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control [FCTC] The FCTC Conference of the Parties at fifth session published a report in June 2012 inviting further comment on electronic nicotine delivery systems including electronic cigarettes. 32 The report concluded popularity of ENDS was growing rapidly, that health and safety concerns have not been resolved and that more research must be conducted, especially with regard to their safety and the marketing claims made by the manufacturers. Parties were advised that to prevent the further spread of ENDS, a number of FCTC provisions could be used. Detailed advice derived from the FCTC Secretariat report is included as Appendix 1. Legislative and regulatory responses Electronic cigarettes and other electronic products containing nicotine are to be regulated as medicines in the United Kingdom from 2016, to ensure their quality and safety. The move comes after an investigation into the products by the Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (MHRA).33 This MHRA investigation included a public consultation; a review of existing studies and the MHRA’s own commissioned research into the quality, safety, marketing, and use of the products; and an impact analysis on the consequences of regulation.9 Once the MHRA licenses e cigarettes and other nicotine containing products, healthcare professionals will be able to recommend them for the first time to smokers who want to quit or to reduce the harm caused to them by tobacco. However, the MHRA’s plans are aligned with forthcoming European legislation, so e cigarettes would not be required to obtain a medicines licence until the European Commission’s Tobacco Products Directive is agreed and becomes UK law in 2016. The revision of the European Commission’s Directive is expected to address the following main issues: − how to regulate products which do not contain tobacco, but which are closely linked to smoking or tobacco consumption, for example electronic- and herbal cigarettes; − labelling and packaging of tobacco products; − additives, such as flavourings, used in tobacco products; − internet sales of tobacco products; and − tracking and tracing of these products. The UK’s decision contrasts with those of some countries that have introduced restrictions on the sale and use of e cigarettes and other countries that have banned them completely, such as Brazil, Norway, and Singapore.33 In Indonesia, the Food and Drug Monitoring Agency in Indonesia has warned the Indonesian people that Electronic Cigarettes could be more dangerous than regular cigarettes; ECs are illegal in Indonesia.34 In the USA, currently, e cigarettes that are marketed for therapeutic purposes are regulated by the United States Food and Drug Administration [FDA] Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER). The FDA Center for Tobacco Products (CTP) currently regulates cigarettes, cigarette tobacco, rollyour-own tobacco, and smokeless tobacco. FDA has stated its intent to issue a proposed rule that would extend FDA’s tobacco product authorities to products that meet the statutory definition of “tobacco product.”35 The background to this is that the U.S. Court of Appeals for the D.C. Circuit, in ©The Union 2013 13 Sottera, Inc. v. Food & Drug Administration, 627 F.3d 891 (D.C. Cir. 2010), issued a decision with regard to e cigarettes and other products “made or derived from tobacco” and the jurisdictional line that should be drawn between “tobacco products” and “drugs,” “devices,” and combination products, as those terms are defined in the FD&C Act. The court held that e cigarettes and other products made or derived from tobacco can be regulated as “tobacco products” under the Act and are not drugs/devices unless they are marketed for therapeutic purposes. The government decided not to seek further review of this decision, and FDA will comply with the jurisdictional lines established by the Sottera case.36 In the Philippines, the Food and Drug Administration has issued a 2013 advisory notice on secondary exposure to EC/ENDS emissions. Citing the review published by the German Cancer Research Centre,19 the advisory states that ‘Second-hand exposure to e cigarette emission which may lead to adverse health effects cannot be excluded’. It goes on to recommend that: ‘The public, especially the youth sector, is advised NOT to start smoking at all and to stop using cigarettes, cigars or e cigarettes. Consistent with the mandate of the DOH and as provided by the TA No. 7394, otherwise known as the Consumer Act of the Philippines, the local government units (LGUs) shall be guided by this advisory in strengthening their ordinances against smoking in public places and on second-hand exposure to harmful substances’.37 Structured evidence review Search strategy Unless otherwise stated, the search period was January 2008 to August Week 2 2013, inclusive. Resources used were Medline/PreMedline, AMED (Allied and Complementary Medicine), Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews to July 2013, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects 3rd Quarter 2013, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials to July 2013, Cochrane Methodology Register to 3rd Quarter 2012, Health Technology Assessment to 3rd Quarter 2013, NHS Economic Evaluation Database to 3rd Quarter 2013, CDC Guide to Community Preventive Services, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts and PsycINFO. Search terms used were: electronics; electrical equipment and supplies; nicotine/*administration & dosage/* therapeutic use; smoking; smoking cessation; and tobacco products. Secondary sources were also searched for a selection of papers using a ‘snowballing’ technique. Internet searches were conducted using the search terms electronic cigarette, electronic nicotine delivery system, position statement and policy. After removal of duplicates, the database comprised 111 records, 13 from the ‘grey’ literature. Classification of retrieved studiesc Classification of retrieved database records resulted in the following: 2 were classified as ‘Meta-analysis’38, 39 4 were classified as ‘Randomised controlled trial’ 28, 29, 40, 41 2 were classified as ‘Cohort study’3, 30, 31 22 were classified as ‘Cross-sectional study,’3, 20-25, 42-56 [of which 4 were classified as ‘Cross-sectional analytic study’ 23, 43, 49, 54] 9 were classified as ‘Position statement’1, 2, 5-8, 57-59 3 were classified as ‘Technical report’ 19, 60, 61 4 records were classified as ‘Review: non- or semi- systematic’9, 62-64 3 were classified as ‘Observational study’65-67 31 were classified as ‘Journal article – general’10, 26, 33, 68-95 c Note that a paper may be classified in more than one category – e.g. a cross-sectional report from a cohort design ©The Union 2013 14 24 were classified as ‘Laboratory study’11-18, 96-111 [of which half were classified as ‘Laboratory study - human subjects’ 11, 12, 14, 97, 101, 103, 104, 107-111] 4 were classified as ‘Clinical case study’112-115 3 were classified as ‘Qualitative’116-118 4 were classified as ‘Public information bulletin’ 9, 35, 36, 119 Evolution of evidence on ECs/ENDS is in a very early stage and may currently be characterised as ‘weak’ (in terms of study designs capable of determining causality). General journal articles (including ‘expert opinion’ pieces) made up the largest proportion (27%), followed by laboratory studies (22%), cross-sectional studies (19%) and position statements (8%). Only 4 records categorised as ‘Randomised controlled trial’ were retrieved,29, 40, 41, 120 and of these, 1 was describing the study protocol rather than results of a trial.40, 120 Only two records classified as ‘cohort study’ were retrieved, 3, 31 of which one involved only 40 subjects over a 24-week period.31 Whilst two retained studies were classified as ‘meta-analysis’ these dealt with NRT for smoking cessation38 and use of smokeless tobacco and risk of myocardial infarction and stroke.39 These were included for completeness, to note that (i) ECs/ENDS are not covered in the relevant Cochrane review; and (ii) an association between use of smokeless tobacco products and risk of fatal myocardial infarction and stroke has been detected, and which does not seem to be explained by chance. In the absence of higher-quality study designs, there was of course no possibility for the availability of systematic reviews dealing specifically with ECs/ENDS (refer to Figure 1). ©The Union 2013 15 Meta-analysis, n=2, 2% Randomized controlled trial, n= 4, 4% Cohort study, n= 2, 2% Cross-sectional study, n= 22, 19% Position statement, n= 9, 8% Technical report, n= 3, 3% Review: non-/ semi-systematic, n= 4, 3% Observational study, n= 3, 3% Journal article – general, n= 31, 27% Laboratory study, n= 24, 21% Clinical case study, n= 4, 3% Qualitative, n= 3, 3% Public information bulletin,n= 5, 4% Figure 1 Classification of retrieved studies (structured evidence review) ©The Union 2013 16 Analysis of position statements from selected health agencies As part of the structured evidence review, an analysis was undertaken of key elements in EC/ENDS position statements from selected national/ international health agencies (refer to Table 2). 1, 2, 5-8, 57, 59 The most commonly included elements in organisational position statements on this issue were as follows: i. Definition of EC/ENDS ii. Assessment of safety iii. Assessment of effectiveness as cessation aid iv. Assessment of effectiveness in harm reduction v. General public health risk assessment vi. Recommendation for urgent (federal) regulation of the manufacture, marketing and sale of e cigarettes and for states to apply laws governing cigarettes also to ECs vii. Recommendation for risk management of EC potential to undermine progress in tobacco control [TC Risk Management]: regulate - sale of ECs to minors should be banned (Federal/State legislation) viii. TC Risk Management Recommendation: regulate - ECs cannot be sold in flavours that are appealing to children ix. TC Risk Management Recommendation: regulate - ECs may not be used in indoor public places and workplaces Not included as position ‘statements’, but nonetheless very useful ‘technical reports’ and / or ‘public information bulletins’ were made available by WHO61 and by the United States Food and Drug Administration [FDA].35, 36, 119 ©The Union 2013 17 Table 2 Analysis of key elements in EC/ENDS position statements from selected national/ international health agencies KEY ACS: American Cancer Society (US) AHA: American Heart Association (US) ALA: American Lung Association (US) CTFK: Campaign for Tobacco Free Kids (US) IUATLD: International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease (International) NACCHO: National Association of City and County Health Officials (US) NSRA: Non-Smokers’ Rights Association (Canada) WHO: World Health Organization (International) Organisations# Position statements – selection of the key elements WHO Scottish Dir Public Health NSRA (Canada) CTFK (USA) NACCHO (US) Canada Lung Association (CA) Cancer Society